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Initiator of the compilation of the 'Caucasian Collection', published in Tiflis in 1876-1912. Ernst was a cryptanalyst under Tsar Nicholas in his 'Black Cabinet' and reached the equivalent rank of admiral. To improve the operating comfort, the C-35 was connected to an electric typewriter, which the U. These included the Vatican, as well the governments of Iraq, Iran, and Libya. Unfortunately, no materials are available to support or argue the words of that high-ranking Finnish intelligence officer ...In marriage he had six sons and one daughter, among others Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro), b. During World War I, he was known as Ernst Popov; he solved German, Austrian and British codes. German military attache in Tallinn, Colonel Horst Rsing, evaluated the Estonian radio-intelligence against the Soviet Union as more successful than the Finnish one ...May 1934 until early 1937, Artuzov was also deputy head of the IV Directorate of the Staff of the RKKA / the Soviet military intelligence / later GRU (to the IV Directorate from May 25, 1934; his raport to Stalin on June 23, 1934).On January 11, 1937, Artuzov was dismissed from his position as deputy head of the Soviet military intelligence. Artuzov was then sent back to the GUGB NKVD, was the head of archival department.At this time the Red Army was already a huge and powerful body but after October, 1917, Bolsheviks faced with many difficulties, including the collapse of the army. 15, No 9, A chronicle of cryptography: In 1918, the German inventor Arthur Scherbius and his close friend Richard Ritter developed a cryptographic machine called Enigma. Enigma was contained in a compact box measuring only 13,5 - 11 - 6 inches. By Wayne Madsen, Covert Action Quarterly 63, : "...Therefore, reorganizing the old army, they left in the War Department that is the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs - - collaborated with the military organization of the Petersburg bolshevik Committee. Encryption using Enigma was based on polyalphabetic substitution method. For decades, the US has routinely intercepted and deciphered top secret encrypted messages of 120 countries. See: General Cartier, Francois, Secrecy in Radiotelegraphy.Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich was the military director of the Supreme Military Council and chief of general field staff of the Red Army (field staff of the Revolutionary Military Council) in 1918 - 1919. The Enigma was an electro-mechanical rotor cypher machine used for both encryption and decryption, from the early 1920s on.Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich was the specialist in take a pictures from airplanes and organized the first technical office of aerial photograph in 1925; he wrote "The aerial photograph" in 1931 and similar book in 1934 (and Grigorij - his son Mikolaj (2nd) b. new military intelligence under different names operated from October 21, 1918. Enigma was developed by Arthur Scherbius dating back to 1919. The Swedish textile engineer Arvid Gerhard Damm, used his experience gained with Jacquard weaving machines for construction of an automatic ciphering machine and applied for a patent in But Rintu Nath, 'Dream 2047', June 2013, vol.

He sent his son to London to study with the great English chronometer maker, he developed an electrical needle telegraph to replace the optical telegraph system ... Soviet Government used both tsar and revolutionary ciphers. Being interested in the encryption business correspondence, Carl Wilhelm Hagelin and Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel were an investors of the AB Cryptograph Company, in the production cipher machines developed Arvid Damm, like a rotary machine Electrocryptograph B-1. Wilhelm left Russia and spent a year abroad, but in July 1918 he was back for a shorter visit ... 1859, joined the Aktiebolaget Cryptograph company under the management of Arvid Gerhard Damm (where Wilhelm's son, Boris Hagelin, also worked for a time). In order to be able to work without the interference of the Swedish Government - ciphering machines were at that time considered war material - I decided to move to Zug, Switzerland. CRYPTO AG was in corporated on May 13, 1952, and had at first just one employee. 2010: In the first of these stages, which lasted until the beginning of the 1890s, created small workshops for repair and installation works, as well as the production of simple parts.History and genealogy of the noble families: Konstantynowicz / Kanstantinovich / Constantinowitz / Konstantinovich Von Gernet (Gern), Croy (Krey), Weiss, Toll, Rehbinder / Rebinder, Steinberg - the Baltic German nobility from Estland / Estonia, Livland / Latvia and St Petersburg in Russia of the 19th century.Tallinn/ Reval, Nomme, Harku, Saku, ksnurme, Lehhola / Lehola, Vaikna, Parnu / Parnawa, Dorpat / Tartu and Viljandi / Fellin in Estonia. August 1931 to May 1935, Artuzov was the head of OGPU foreign intelligence / INO.In November, 1917 to May 1918, Potapov served as Chief of Staff, and acting as assistant manager of the Military Department; in June 1918, he became a member of the Supreme Military Council, and from July 1919 Chairman of the Military Legislative Council). ) entered the service for the French intelligence, and intelligence reports from the allies - the French military mission in Moscow - came to the end in July 1918. Shilov for the National Library of Russia, 2011-2013. Security of the encrypted message was based on the secret key. The B-21 had a lamp field similar to that in Enigma. These nations had bought the world's most sophisticated and supposedly secure commercial encryption technology from Crypto AG, a Swiss company ... Damm edited the first a brochure in April 1917, he was the founder of the Company in 1916 (or 1915 by Boris Hagelin), with Wahlberg as the A. Estonians were also active on radio-intelligence before the Second World War.In February 1918, the country faced with bloody civil war, and inand two political commissars Shutko and P. On March 17, 1918, the Supreme Military Council included: a military leader, his assistant, Quartermaster-General with several assistants, and intelligence chiefs, a field inspector of artillery, and others; on March 19, 1918: Chairman - People's Commissar for Military Affairs Leon Trotsky, the Council members and above named General N. In Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich born 13 / 25 October 1832 in Peterhof, Field Marshal and on December 6, 1862 was appointed governor in the Caucasus and commander the Caucasian Army, with all rights chief of the army to July 23, 1881. Ernst Constantin Fetterlein in 1896 joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and became the chief cryptologist. In a new compact version, the C-35, the lamp field was replaced by a printer, which produced the ciphered text at a speed of three letters per second. The C-35, as small as a telephone, became very successful. Hagelin in Switzerland, where in 1948 he founded Crypto AG in Zug, during the Cold War produced a ciphering unit, the TC-52, used for the red telephone line between the White House and Moscow The Hagelin machine was used on the side of the Allies in World War II. All the while, because of a secret agreement between the National Security Agency (NSA) and Crypto AG, they might as well have been hand delivering the message to Washington. The cover shielding the NSA-Crypto AG relationship was torn in March 1992...". Olev un was a phenomenal decipherer, "..had managed to break the latest code of the Red Army during the Polish campaign in September 1939.

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