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Hotspots are volcanic areas believed to be formed by mantle plumes, which are hypothesized to be columns of hot material rising from the core-mantle boundary in a fixed space that causes large-volume melting.Because tectonic plates move across them, each volcano becomes dormant and is eventually re-formed as the plate advances over the postulated plume.

Large eruptions can affect temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the sun and cool the Earth's lower atmosphere (or troposphere); however, they also absorb heat radiated from the Earth, thereby warming the upper atmosphere (or stratosphere).Izalco (volcano), located in the Cordillera de Apaneca volcanic range complex in El Salvador.Only a few generations old, Izalco is the youngest and best known cone volcano.Like stratovolcanoes, they can produce violent, explosive eruptions, but their lava generally does not flow far from the originating vent.Cryptodomes are formed when viscous lava is forced upward causing the surface to bulge. Helens was an example; lava beneath the surface of the mountain created an upward bulge which slid down the north side of the mountain.

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